Use of Production and Brackish Water in Concrete Mixtures
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 2 (2010), PP 39 - 43
Published: 09 Dec 2010
by Ramzi A. Taha, Ali S. Al-Harthy, Khalifa S. Al-Jabri from Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Abstract: The Sultanate of Oman lies in an arid region where fresh water sources are scarce. Economic and population growth spur the need for more housing, schools, roads, and many other civil works. In the construction of such projects, water is needed as a component in concrete mixing. Contractors in arid regions are sometimes faced with the problem of finding water of acceptable quality for their construction work. However, plenty of production water (oily and brackish water) is produced in the oil fields during oil production. In 2002, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) produced an estimated 130,000 m3/day of crude oil with a corresponding 630,000 m3/day of production water, most of which are disposed of via deep well injection. This research project was initiated as a possible option for the use of production water as part of PDO’s policy on sustainable development, materials efficiency, and waste reduction. The main objective of this paper is to present the results obtained on the use of production (oily) and brackish water in concrete mixtures. Water samples were obtained from four PDO asset areas. Nine water samples, including a controlled potable (tap) water, were analysed for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, hardness, alkalinity, and sulphates. In addition, cement pastes and mortars and plain concrete mixtures were prepared using 100% substitution of potable water. Nine mixtures were prepared and cured for up to one and a half years. Mixtures were tested for initial setting times, compressive strength and flexural strength. Research results indicate that there was a small decrease in the initial setting times for all cement paste mixtures prepared using production and brackish water in comparison with potable water. However, such values still exceeded the minimum 45 minutes initial setting requirement as set forth in ASTM C150. The use of PDO’s production and brackish water did not cause any decrease in the compressive or flexural strength measurements of cement mortars or concrete mixtures in comparison with potable water. In general, there was no strength reversal with longer curing periods. However, for most concrete mixtures the strength tends to level off after three months of curing. Most production water mixtures resulted in higher strength measurements than those prepared using potable water. Further testing is necessary to investigate corrosion potential in reinforced concrete. read more... read less...
Keywords: Brackish Water, Production Water, Polluted Water, Concrete, Mortar, Paste, Strength.
A Case Study of Grid Connected Solar PV Irrigation System in Semi-Arid Region of Bangladesh
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 33 - 38
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by A. K. M. Sadrul Islam, M. A. H. Mondal and M. Ahiduzzaman from Islamic University of Technology, Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Agargaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh , Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh
Abstract: The semi-arid region of Bangladesh is called the Barend tract lies roughly between latitudes 24°20´N and 25°35´N and longitudes 88°20´E and 89°30´E and covered an area of 7728 km2. This region has already been designated as drought prone. So, this region experiences extremes that are clearly in contrast to the climatic condition of the rest of the country. To combat the extreme conditions of climate for sustainable agricultural development a special authority has been formed named ‘Barend Multipurpose Development Authority’ (BMDA). Under the BMDA activities an irrigation project has been launched since decades. Under this project irrigation facilities are provided for agricultural cultivation at this semi-arid region. The total number of deep tubes well installed so far under the BMDA irrigation project is 11,967 and the total demand of electricity is 277 MW. The project experiences frequent grid power outage, including low voltage problems and load shedding, and encourages off-peak hour irrigation (after 11:00 pm). To overcome this problem a grid connected solar PV system is proposed in the Barend tract. A techno-economic feasibility analysis is done for 500 kW grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system for this location. HOMER and RET Screen computer tools and monthly average solar radiation data from NASA is used in this study. The unit electricity production cost is found to be 14.51 BDT (Bangladeshi Taka) based on project lifetime 20 years and 10% discount rate. Considering the selling price of electricity 10 BDT/kWh with 5% escalation rate annually to the grid, the IRR, equity payback and benefit-cost ratio are found to be around 5.6%, 13.1 years and 0.68 respectively without considering any clean energy facilities. The total annual greenhouse gas reduction is estimated to be 658 tons for 500 kW grid system. read more... read less...
Keywords: Irrigation for semi-arid region, Solar PV, Grid electricity.
Solar Desalination by Indirect Heating
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 29 - 32
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Hasan Mousa, Mousa K. Abu-Arabi, Manar Al-Naerat, Remah Al-Bakkar, Yasmeen Ammera, Amira Khattab from Jordan University of Science & Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Irbid 22110, PO Box 3030, Jordan
Abstract: A solar unit to produce desalinated water and hot water from saline feed water was designed and tested. The unit consists of a solar collector (5 evacuated tubes) that heats a thermal fluid circulating in a closed loop due to thermo siphoning effect. The hot thermal fluid passes through a water bath giving its thermal energy and causes some of the water in the bath to evaporate. The vapor generated condenses on an inclined glass plate and withdrawn as desalinated water. The effect of the ambient temperature, the solar irradiation, and the other weather conditions on the productivity of the unit (litters of desalinated water produced/hr) was investigated. The results showed that the unit was capable of producing 0.15 L of desalinated water/hr. The experiments showed that the unit productivity was improved by cooling the glass cover on which the water vapor condenses. Two types of thermal fluids were used namely jojoba oil and water. Water as a thermal fluid gave better productivity. The effect of feed water salinity on the unit productivity was tested by feeding water of salinity ranging between 0.5 g/L (tap water) to 25 g/L. The productivity decreased as the feed water salinity was increased. read more... read less...
Keywords: Desalination, Solar, Hot Water, Productivity
Vegetative Methods to Prevent Wind Erosion in Central Anatolia Region
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 25 - 28
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Ramazan Acar, Sukru Dursun from Selcuk University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Agronomy, Konya-Turkey, Selcuk University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Konya-Turkey
Abstract: Wind erosion is the phenomenon of transportation of worn-away soils and their accumulation in any other place by the action of wind. Wind erosion affecting factors are human affect and natural factors and those natural factors are climate, soil and vegetation. Widespread wind erosion areas in Turkey are the arid and semi-arid areas. Those areas are located in South-East- Anatolia and Central-Anatolia region in Turkey. Wind erosion formation of the total area is of 465,913 ha, approximately 70% of these (322,474 ha) is located within the borders of Konya Closed Basin. The main factors of effective wind erosion creation in Central Anatolia annual less and disorderly being rainfall amount, high wind blowing, early and over-grazing, using some plants as fuel, inappropriate land use, unsuitable machinery and equipment. Wind erosion area of Konya-Karapınar the reclamation work in the field as the continuation of each other was conducted in two stages. First physical measure (reed-screen curtains), the second is cultural measures (planting and reforestation). Cultural measures are used as herbs (Agropyron cristatum, Onobrychis sativa, etc.) and trees are (Elaeagnus sp., Fraxinus sp. Robinia pseudeaccucia, etc.), which dry and hot-resistant plants were selected plantation. There are two different kinds helpful of vegetation in the erosion area. One is biologically and other is mechanical. The biological benefits increase soil organic matter and soil structure formation to serve. Mechanical benefits are breaking wind speed against to prevent erosion. In this study, Konya Closed Basin was examined in terms of meteorological, soil and vegetation, in the direction of desertification prevention. The work done by the success of the new measures has been put forward to be taken. Obtained developing alternatives have been successfully applied to the rest of the desert climate, in or other the regions read more... read less...
Keywords: Desertification, Xerophyt plants, Wind erosion, Konya, Soil, Sand
Autonomous Membrane Distillation Pilot Plant Unit Driven by Solar Energy: Experiences and Lessons Learned
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 21 - 24
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Fawzi Banat, Nesreen Jwaied from German-Jordanian University (on leave from JUST), P.O. Box: 35247, Amman, Jordan, 11180 , Jordan University of Science and Technology. PO Box: 3030; Irbid, Jordan, 22110
Abstract: Through the SMADES EC-funded project a solar driven membrane distillation unit was installed by Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in the Aqaba city of Jordan. The feed was real seawater from the Red Sea without any pre-treatment. The unit consists of three subsystems: the solar collector field, the heat exchanger and the membrane distillation module. Batteries to back up the system during cloudy times or blackout hours were used. This paper presents results obtained from the unit over one year of continuous operation. read more... read less...
Keywords: Membrane Distillation, Solar Energy, Standalone Systems, Desalination
Trends and Problems of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Batna City and Prospects for a Sustainable Development
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 15 - 20
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Linda SEFOUHI, Mahdi KALLA, Leila AOURAGH from LRNAT, University of Batna, Batna, ALGERIA
Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major problem in most developing countries. The increasing share of the population living in cities poses serious challenges to the provision of MSW management services by the municipalities. Then, due to varied lifestyles and consumption patterns, the quality and composition of waste have been more varied and changing. A taking of consciousness leads public authorities and all the concerned partners (industrialists, local authorities) to set up the policies necessities in a better management of the waste trying to master the environmental and sanitary consequences (air, water, land, human health etc.) on all the chain of their elimination. The concept of sustainable development is based on the principles of use responsible for the resources of planet and of environmental protection. In Batna city, it was found that, although MSW collection service was available for 98% of the residents, no proper treatment or landfill procedure was followed for the collected waste. Knowing that the budget for MSW management was 2% of the total budget of the municipality, it is indicating a low priority for this issue. The study focuses on showing the growth and the composition of household waste produced in Batna city (Algeria) and how household waste was and is treated and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving management of household waste for a sustainable development read more... read less...
Keywords: Management Household Waste, landfill, environmental impact, Sustainable development
Biological Treatment of Organic Waste for Poultry Farm in Hot Climate
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 11 - 14
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Rumana Rashid, A.B.M. Mahbubul Malik, Md Sayem Khan from Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor, Malaysia, 81310 , Department of Architecture, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1212, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor, Malaysia, 81310
Abstract: Biogas is a byproduct of the decomposition of organic waste by anaerobic bacteria. Organic waste is put into a sealed tank called a digester (or bioreactor) where it is heated and agitated. In the absence of oxygen anaerobic bacteria consume the organic matter to multiply and produce biogas. Biogas is typically composed of 60% methane and 40% CO2. It is similar to natural gas which is composed of 99% methane. Biogas is a clean and renewable energy that may be substituted to natural gas for cooking, to produce vapor and hot water or to generate electricity. Organic waste is converted into compost using a method that does not produce bad smells. This paper highlight towards designing Organic waste management plants for poultry farm in hot climate. Hot climate is more effective for the decomposition of organic waste. This paper is mainly a critical review of related literature and previous research around the world. It is divided into two parts. The first part is review of different type of waste management plants and second part is critical effective analysis of methodology in use of waste management plant for poultry firm in hot climate. The result shows that 2 KW/h is enough energy to power 180 nos. 10 W light bulb for 12 hours in a poultry farm. It is important to raise public awareness about the programmed in order for communities to join for future. If people feel exposed to energy price fluctuation and people have an environmental conscience about waste management then biogas might be a sustainable solution for people. read more... read less...
Keywords: Waste materials, Poultry firm, Organic waste, Hot climate
Impacts of Pressurized Irrigation Technologies on Efficient Water Resources Uses in Semi-Arid Climate of Konya Basin of Turkey
SWES, volume-01 , Issue 1 (2010), PP 1 - 4
Published: 18 Sep 2010
by Bilal Acar, Ramazan Topak, Mithat Direk from Selçuk University, Agricultural Faculty, Konya, Turkey, 42075
Abstract: Performance evaluation of irrigation has been an important area of research for better management of water resources. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of pressurized irrigation systems by using the previous researches conducted by our team in the Konya Basin of Turkey. The uniformity coefficient, UC and distribution uniformity, DU, as a performance parameter were analysed. The average UC and DU values for drip irrigated areas were 80.9% and 68.9%, respectively. These values for sprinkler irrigated lands were 86.8% and 79.9%, respectively. The overall result showed that both UC and DU values were lower in drip irrigation than sprinkler irrigation. In general, sprinkler irrigation system has been applied for a long time while drip irrigation system has been used only recent years in Konya Closed Basin so low uniformity in drip irrigation system might be attributed to the poor experience of farmers especially about management and maintenance. It can be concluded that pressurized irrigation systems are efficient irrigation methods and should be widely used in agriculture especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world under good management for sustainable water resources use. read more... read less...
Keywords: Konya Closed Basin, Pressurized Irrigation Systems, Irrigation Uniformity, Water Application Efficiency