SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 105 - 112
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Annina Takala, Ossi Heino from Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
Abstract: This paper describes a study that was conducted to assess weak signals and wild cards in the case of water services. It is argued that the potential of this approach lies in the practical application, not in scientific strict methodology and rigid interpretations of what weak signals and wild cards are. Thinking about weak signals and wild cards can be an essential part in strategic long-term thinking, help think differently, and in this way contribute to the future sustainability of water services. read more... read less...
Keywords: Water Services, Weak Signals, Wild Cards, Strategic Planning.
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 97 - 104
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Ashish Kumar Parashar from Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Central University, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract: The quantity, strength and type of sewage depends upon the population, Life style of people and the existence of different types of industries respectively and the amount of treatment required to be given to sewage depends very much upon the source of disposal. In Bilaspur the source of disposal of municipal as well as industrial waste water is Arpa River (Non perennial) which is known as life line of Bilaspur city. The climatic change has already turned the perennial Arpa River into non Perennial River and at this time the Urbanization, Industrial growth and improved standard of living of people of Bilaspur have increased the strength and quantity of sewage in recent years to a point where dilution alone can no longer be relied upon to prevent the undesirable effect of pollution. Hence it is absolutely necessary to study the characteristics and behavior of sewage, to ensure its safe disposal. This study will help us in determining the degree and type of treatment required to a given sewage according to its characteristics and thus to avoid the pollution of the source of its disposal i.e. Arpa river so that the adverse effect of pollution on human health, aquatic life, animals and plants can be eliminated. For the present study we have selected 4 places in Bilaspur City for collection of sewage hence Sample 1 was collected at Vasant Vihar S.E.C.L. Colony, The sample 2 was collected from M/S Narmada Drinks Pvt. Ltd. Sirgitti, The sample 3 was collected at Pachrighat drain. The sample 4 was collected from Nalla near Bannak Chowk Sirgitti. The Chemical tests namely Suspended Solids, Dissolved Solids, Chloride Content, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Physical tests namely pH value, Temperature, Threshold Odour Number (TON) had been performed and the tests results were compared with Indian standards permissible limits. Priority of this journal is to provide our important and valuable information to all people who show interest. The test results indicated that the Sample-1Vasant Vihar is less polluted, Sample-2 Narmada Drinks only requires neutralization of Chloride Content, Sample-3 Pachrighat was polluted and required treatment in summer season for reducing Solids whereas Sample-4 Bannak Nalla was highly polluted and required throughout treatment of higher degree. Out of the four samples the Sample-4 (Nalla near Bannak Chowk) was found to be most polluted sample in terms of Suspended solids, Chloride content, C.O.D., B.O.D. & T.O.N. and the drain containing this sample is being used by local public and is being discharged untreated into Arpa River. This Wastewater must be treated to prevent the Environment and the water bodies. read more... read less...
Keywords: Water Quality, Water Purification, Wastewater Treatment, C.O.D., B.O.D., Odour Number.
Adaptation of an Early Design Stage Tool forAssessment of Sustainable Energy Systems (SES) in Large UAE Buildings
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 91 - 95
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by K. Shanks from School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society (EGIS), Heriot-Watt University, Dubai, U.A.E.
Abstract: The paper outlines a new design tool for the assessment of sustainable energy systems (SES) for large buildings that is being adapted for the UAE building stock and climate context. The structure and underlying framework is discussed for SES and building types appropriate to the UAE. The mapping of the various levels of input and output of the tool to a typical design development process are described and initial characterization of some components are presented. read more... read less...
Keywords: mapping, sustainable energy systems
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 87 - 90
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Jimoh Oladunni Haolat, Abraham George, Mabrok Issa, Mikael Berthod, Kean Wang from The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, PO Box 2533, UAE, Takreer Research Center, Abu Dhabi, PO Box 3593, UAE
Abstract: The cooling water from a local oil refinery was sampled, analyzed and experimentally treated with UV light irradiation at a wavelength of ~254nm. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and bacteria count (BC) were analyzed for the water samples over years to monitor the water quality. The experimental results showed that: 1) The cooling water quality (e.g. organic matters) varies significantly over the years’ operation, probably due to the change in weather (mainly the temperature); 2) The UV treatment was highly effective for the disinfection of cooling water. Within a 24 hour treatment period, it was observed that the bacteria count decreased from 3890 cfu/ml to practically undetectable, which is consistent with the UV/Vis analysis that the absorbance at 254 nm was decreased significantly over the time. The degradation of chemicals by UV was also observed in the experiment. read more... read less...
Keywords: UV, refinery water, water analysis, UV/Vis, cooling water, water treatment
Bioremediation- A Beneficial Use of Biotechnology and Allied Engineering Technologies in Oil Producing Regions
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 83 - 85
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Muhammad Mukhtar and Larry D Griffin from Department of Biotechnology, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE Department of Languages and Literature, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
Abstract: Microbial decomposition has played a major role in the sustenance of societies by decomposing various materials thus enhancing physical space on the earth. However, a continuous increase in world population now threatens the carrying capacity of our planet. Within a defined space on Earth, the ever increasing number of living organisms creates challenges for the management of waste materials generated. Identification and isolation of microbes capable of decomposing wastes and hazardous materials and discovery of processes to produce genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) through biotechnological processes give hope to making this world a better place to live by managing global wastes using tamed microorganisms. Scientists coin this process of utilizing GEMS with defined characteristics of decontaminating waste and harmful materials as bioremediation. In this study, we evaluate relative scientific data from bioremediation and oil spills in the Middle East. The US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, PubMed and PubMed Health databases were used for retrieving information relevant to application of bioremediation in oil spills and issues associated with oil contamination in peripheries of oil drilling areas. The size of these databases gradually increase, however, based on our access in the last week of October 2015, the word “bioremediation” search on the PubMed databases returned above 36,000 articles, and among these a combined search of “bioremediation AND Oil” returned 2,400 articles which shows that 7% of global research in the area of bioremediation is dedicated towards oil cleaning. A further refining of the search in reference to Middle East (bioremediation AND Oil AND Middle East) returns 41 articles thus revealing 1.7% of the research activities occur in the Middle East. According to the US Energy Information Administration, the Middle East harbors 49% reserves of crude oil, whereas, it shares a significantly weaker output as far as scientific contributions remain. Based on this information, we provide our analyses of the ongoing bioremediation in general with a particular focus on oil and propose strengthening of biotechnology programs in collaboration with the discipline of engineering to foster research in oil bioremediation in the Middle East read more... read less...
Keywords: Bioremediation, Microbial decomposition, waste materials, increasing number of living organisms
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 75 - 82
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Robert M. Arthu, and G. G. Garland from American University of Ras Al Khaimah UAE, Independent Coastal Management Consultant, UAE
Abstract: The Al Hamra development in the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah is situated along the south-eastern coast of the Arabian Gulf. The development fronts the Gulf along a 5 km. stretch of sandy beach and, as it includes 5 hotels, numerous villas and condos, represents a significant investment. Such an investment requires long-term strategies to minimize risk from sea level rise. As IPCC reports continue to be updated with new information, predictions of sea level rise have been revised upward. In order to plan for the protection of these, and other developments, accurate information needs to be supplied to those involved in planning adaptation strategies. This paper seeks to quantify and map the potential area subject to inundation up to the year 2099. Using the highest inundation scenario, a GIS map of inundation will be created. Other factors, such as high tides, storm surge and extreme wave events will see water levels increased beyond the predicted sea level scenarios indicating greater risk of flooding. This project will use LiDAR data in a GIS environment to provide the most accurate elevation data. Other layers showing buildings assist in visualizing future vulnerability to sea level rise. This coastline is heavily developed with construction underway for more resort developments. As the risk from sea level rise evolves over a long time period, planners require accurate information that can be easily updated in order to react to revised predictions. This paper represents a pilot project as future research is planned to examine the entire 65km coastline of Ras Al Khaimah. read more... read less...
Keywords: Sea Level Rise, GIS, LiDAR, Ras Al Khaimah
Smart Cities & 21st Century Economic Development & Welfare Holistic Approach Towards a Roadmap Strategy Development for RAK Emirate
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 69 - 74
Published: 28 Nov 2015
by Imad Eddine Oubiri from RAK Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
Abstract: Modern economic concepts and models are nowadays abounding, thus creating a challenge in keeping pace with the global economic and technological developments, for both institutions and individuals, often failing to grasp the true meanings and purposes of the latter; thus receding chances for economic communities to make use of the sound scientific content therein, fair value, great benefits and implied objectives to achieve economic development and welfare. In recent years, and after the spread of some the concepts such as “sustainability”, “clean and green energy”, "e- government"; the "Smart" concept is nowadays strongly imposing itself in the local scene, after UAE Federal Government and Dubai Emirate have adopted and embarked onto “Smart Progressive” plan implementation. Candid man-of-the-street assumptions would inevitably and systematically link the concept to applications for smart phones and mobile systems and the exploitation of technological resources in everyday life. Whereas, in fact this is only a part of a whole integrated and wide-ranging economic system in which technology plays a pivotal role alongside with several other most prominent and crucial factors. The present paper deals with introduction to the “Smart” economic model implementation in our City of the future, with focus on criteria, requirements, indicators and role and contribution of citizens, government and institutions, aiming at shedding the light onto a hot topic with critical impact on present and future holistic economic action plans. read more... read less...
Keywords: Smart City, Technology Integration, Infrastructure Integration, Strategy Development
GIS Based Surveillance of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) Risk for Rawalpindi City: A Geostatistical Approach
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 63 - 67
Published: 26 Nov 2015
by Amna Butt, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir and Summra Erum from Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Abstract: Identification of previously existing traffic accident hotspots is the first step to ensure future road safety. The present study focused on providing GIS based geostatistical surveillance for the Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) in Rawalpindi for five years (2009-2013) to determine the high risk areas or hotspots. For this purpose, spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I test), Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) and hotspot (Getis-Ord Gi*) analyses were performed on the data obtained from Punjab Emergency Service Department (Rescue 1122). Spatial clusters and hotspots identified during the research lied mostly in the Northern and Northeastern part of the study area encompassing both commercial and residential areas of the city with majority of accident hotspots being near schools, hospitals, airport and highways. The study proposed that serious steps should be taken to improve the road safety conditions in these areas and focus of Emergency Response Providers (ERPs) should be directed there. Furthermore, the integration of GIS based expertise in the Emergency department should be ensured for regular surveillance of shifts in hotspots. read more... read less...
Keywords: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA), GIS, Geostatistical analysis, Hotspots (Getis-Ord Gi), Spatial Autocorrelation, Moran’s I test, Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE)
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 2 (2015), PP 59 - 62
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Fatima Bensaad and Naima Belhaneche-Bensemra from , Laboratory of Materials Coating and Environment, University M Hamed Bougara, Boumerdes, Algeria b Laboratory of Sciences and Techniques of Environment, National Polytechnic School, Algiers, Algeria
Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the influence of pro oxidant agents on the natural ageing of polypropylene (PP). For that purpose, two formulations containing, respectively, 5 wt % of Ca stearate and Ca/Zn complex as pro oxidant agents were prepared and exposed during 18 months to exterior natural conditions of Mediterranean climate. For comparison, a control formulation based only on PP was prepared. Samples were taken off every three months and characterized. The evolution of mechanical properties was followed by tensile test and Shore D hardness while the chemical modifications were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that all the considered formulations were affected but those containing the pro oxidant agents were the most affected. Moreover, Ca stearate is more effective than Ca/Zn complex as pro oxidant agent. read more... read less...
Keywords: Polypropylene, Natural Ageing, Pro Oxidant Agent, Photodegradation.
Synergistic Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 55 - 58
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, and Aniruddha B. Pandit from Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India
Abstract: p-Nitro phenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively, Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters. The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi. Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decomposition of p- Nitrophenol was quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP- H2O2 system exhibited 91% more degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the degradation PNP. read more... read less...
Keywords: p-Nitrophenol, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Synergism, Wastewater Treatment.
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 47 - 53
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by M. Ayub Khan Yousuf Zai, M. Rashid Kamal Ansari, Jawaid Iqbal, Arif Hussain, and Ahmed Hasan from Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics and Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Federal University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract: Ozone is of considerable importance to mankind because of its role as a shield for the biosphere against the Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the outer space, in particular from the sun. In the recent years, the advancement in the science and technology has increased the understanding of various phenomena of the environment and consequently the predictability of many naturally occurring events. It has been Due to a serious reduction of O3 content in the atmosphere life forms on the earth are exposed to a new hazard in the form of an increase of harmful solar UV radiation intensity at the sea level. Obviously, this situation calls for an assessment, monitoring and prevention of the incidence of decrease in the O3 concentration. The fluctuating dynamics of stratospheric ozone layer depletion (OLD) for Pakistan atmospheric region has been introduced by mentioning the production and annihilation of ozone. The recent development in the theory and application of wavelets are yielding powerful multi resolution techniques for the analysis of time series and image data. Wavelets are the central idea of a broad framework for displaying and analyzing data. Wavelets possess a simultaneous time frequency localization that makes them useful in presenting complicated signals. In this communication, behavior of ozone is explained on the basis of ozone profile, effects of periodic, a-periodic change along with effects of monthly and seasonal variations using wavelet analysis. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wavelet Characterization, Ozone Layer Depletion, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, biosphere
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 41 - 45
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Anis H. Fakeeha, Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Ahmed S. Al Fatesh, Wasim U. Khan, Yahya A. Mohammed, Ahmed E. Abasaeed, Mostafa A. Soliman and Raja L. Al-Otaibi from Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Chemical Engineering Department, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Cairo, Egypt King A City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia
Abstract: In recent years, hydrogen production received enormous attention, since it is an environmentally friendly, energy source. The aim of this research was to examine the hydrogen production with the help of methane’s catalytic decomposition. 30% Fe coupled with different % of Co over alumina support, were examined by catalytic decomposition of methane for the production of hydrogen. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation method. The catalytic activity results revealed that the catalysts, coupled 15%Co gave the highest conversion of 72.5% as depicted by the three-hour time on stream profile. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized using different techniques such as BET, H2-TPR, and XRD. read more... read less...
Keywords: Al2O3, Carbon Nanotubes, Co, Fe, Hydrogen, Methane Introduction Nowadays, hydrogen is regarded as ideal fuel that can replace the fossil, particularly when it is produced without carbon oxides.
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 37 - 40
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Waqarullah Kazim from RAK Research and Innovation Center, American University of Ras-Al-Khaimah, UAE
Abstract: PV Panel mounting structure for ground, flat surface and rooftops are getting common and gaining their popularity for several reasons, with availability of vast land that can easily be turned into flat surfaces and flat roof tops of buildings, there is a high probability of such products getting common in short span of time in this region. Conventional mounting structures require ample amount of time for them to be ready for installation, such flat surface mounting structures reduces or eliminates huge chunk of expense. The efficiency is effected due to the tilt, which is obvious, but the effect on performance of the rooftop PV system due to temperature and less airflow is discussed in this paper. read more... read less...
Keywords: Photovoltaics, Renewable, Rooftop, FlatSurface, Ground Mounted PV, Mounting Structure, Performance
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 29 - 35
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Jameelu S. Abaya, Rabee Rustum and Don Ashan Haputantri from Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE Institute of infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University Department of Operations, ARMS Group, Dubai, UAE
Abstract: Onsite waste water treatment systems are the most economical way of dealing with used water in an isolated environment. And because of the variability normally associated with the operation of these systems is linked to either varying hydraulic loading or the nature of the environment in which the system was installed, the performance of these systems needs to be evaluated to find out the optimum operating condition. In this work, the performance of two small-scale treatment systems used for wastewater and gray water was evaluated. This was done by comparing the measure of some physical, chemical and biological parameters in the effluent to the standards of effluent discharge sets by Dubai Municipality. The performance was also measured from other angles using the proposed Swedish Water and Wastewater Association performance indicators so as to give the analysis a wider coverage of economic and energy consumption. The result shows that the performance of the installed solar-powered treatment systems was enough to meet the requirements set by Dubai municipality for effluent discharge except for Ammonia-Nitrogen. Also, the deployment of solar power energy supply, coupled with a low energy usage of the two systems, has made this particular setting an environmentally sustainable setting for such an isolated site. read more... read less...
Keywords: waste water treatment systems, isolated environment, hydraulic loading, discharge sets by Dubai Municipality
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 21 - 28
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Zeinelabidin E. RIZK from Institute of Environment, Water and Energy, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, UAE
Abstract: Results of several research studies conducted on Wadi Al Bih Basin in Ras Al Khaimah area between 1996 and 2015 were used to answer the question: why Wadi Al Bih limestone is the most sustainable aquifer in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)? Extensive field work, climatic data, hydrogeologic studies, results of chemical analysis of 193 groundwater samples, records of stable (2H and 18O) and radioisotopes (3H and 14C) in 52 rainwater samples and 312 groundwater samples, analysis of aquifer recharge to discharge and findings of a numerical model were used in this investigation. Results show that Wadi Al Bih basin receives an average annual rainfall of 155 mm, which is higher the UAE annual average (119 mm). Annual rainfall in excess of 400 mm is common in the study area. The percentage of aquifer recharge from the total annual rainfall (74 million m3) was ≈9% (6.7 million m3), increased to 13% (17.6 million m3) after construction of Wadi Al Bih dam in 1982. In the meantime, the reduction of average annual groundwater production from Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer decreased from 9 million m3 during the period 1991-1995 to 4.5 million m3 during the period 2010-2014. The decrease in groundwater pumping from the aquifer paralleled the construction of Al Buryat, Al Humraniah, Rafaq, Ghalilah and Al Nakheel desalination plants, with a total production capacity of 93 thousand m3 per day. These conditions have eased pressure on aquifer, increased groundwater storage, raised of hydraulic heads by 1 m in Al Burayrat area and 16 m near Wadi Al Bih main dam and decreased the average groundwater salinity from 2,122 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 3,901 mg/L in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively, during the period 1991-1995, to 1,497 and 2,145 mg/L in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively, during the period 2010-2014. The decrease in aquifer’s salinity due to the aquifer recovery was 30% in Wadi Al Bih well field and 45% in Al Burayrat well field. The karstic nature and structural setting of Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer increases secondary porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K ranges from 32.65 to 67.30 m/d and averages 50 m/d) and enhances aquifer recharge. The temperature of the groundwater in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer varied between 32.8 and 43.3°C, with averages of 36.1°C during winter and 36.3°C during summer. The average groundwater temperature decreases from 36.5 and 36.4°C during winter to 36.4 and 35.8° C during summer in Wadi Al Bih and Al Burayrat well fields, respectively. The decrease of groundwater temperature in the aquifer is associated with decreasing salinity and indicates aquifer recharge from rains falling on the mountain peaks surrounding the basin. Stable isotopes (2H and 18O) suggest water in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer is recharged at an average elevation of 1,050 m. Tritium (3H) data are consistent with a local source of precipitation and that the aquifer has a small residence time of a few years. Isotope and carbonate chemistry suggest that a significant amount of the groundwater in the Wadi Al Bih well field is recharged behind the dam. This is consistent with the observation that most of the groundwater samples collected in Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer suggest recent recharge by exhibiting concentrations of a few tritium units. Results of a groundwater flow model for Wadi Al Bih limestone aquifer reveal that the average annual groundwater production in the present (4.5 million m3) is reasonably less than average ann read more... read less...
Keywords: Wadi Al Bih Limestone Aquifer, Safe Yield, Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 9 - 19
Published: 25 Nov 2015
by Mianda Khattab and Salah El Haggar from Environmental Engineering Department, The American University in Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: As tourism industry is one of the main industrial focuses nowadays as it has grown almost by 40% since 1960 till date and it is expected to represent almost 25% of the globes population in 5 years. It has many benefits economically by getting introduced to foreign currencies and better market share; and socially by providing more job opportunities and better lifestyles yet the environmental point of view is not yet a focus, in other words in line with the industry growth huge amount of natural resources are being consumed so as to cover for the needs of the current tourists. Thus there is a need for the introduction of a novel approach that will integrate ecotourism and sustainability by introducing and implementing the zero waste strategy which will ensure conservation of natural resources with safe and environmentally friendly acts, activities and waste full utilization methods following cradle-to-cradle concept as it will be shown in the paper. read more... read less...
Keywords: Tourism, Sustainability, Eco-Tourism, Zero Waste Strategy, Cradle-To-Cradle Concept, Sustainable
SWES, volume-07 , Issue 1 (2015), PP 1 - 7
Published: 21 Nov 2015
by Ramzy R. Obaid from Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: For so many decades, hydropower generation has been one of the most attractive and effective methods of electricity generation around the world. However, when it comes to countries with low or seasonal water-flow, hydropower generation is usually deemed infeasible. Despite not having continuously running rivers; Saudi Arabia is one of the richest countries in the region in rain water with hundreds of dams holding billions of cubic meters of water behind them. Nevertheless, to date, there is not a single dam that is used for hydropower generation in the Kingdom. This paper explores this missed opportunity by showing the practicality of generating electricity even from low and seasonal water dams. It presents examples of installed hydropower plants inthe region and lists possible locations of candidate dams to install small hydropower plants in the Kingdom. Preliminary estimates of the available hydro electricity generation from the recommended sites are also presented read more... read less...
Keywords: Hydropower generation,Seasonal-Water dams,Small Hydropower,Renewable energy,Saudi Arabia