volume-14-Issue 2 (2018)
Effect Weibull Distribution Parameters Calculating Methods on Energy Output of a Wind Turbine: A Study Case
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 163 - 173
Published: 15 Jan 2018
by Abeer Qawasmi, Suhil Kiwan from Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Abstract: Wind energy is an important renewable energy source. It is considered as one of the most significant, freely available and alternative source of energy distributed throughout the world. The estimation of the potential of wind energy in a site plays a vital role in estimating the energy output of the wind turbines and, therefore, affects economics and decision making. Site characterization can be expressed mathematically in different methods. Weibull distribution is one of the most common methods used to represent wind energy potential in a site. In this study, wind speed data was collected for year 2013, from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013. The data collected for three different heights (20 m, 40 m and 60 m) from measurement station installed at Jordan University of science and technology campus area (Irbid, Jordan). The data recorded based on ten minutes averages using a data logger. Yearly shape factor (k) and scale factor (c), of Weibull distribution for the wind speed are calculated for each height using graphical and standard deviation methods. Both arithmetic and cubic mean wind speeds were used to estimate Weibull parameters. Then, the energy outputs of Vestas V80-2.0 wind turbine installed at the site were estimated using calculated Weibull parameters and actual estimation. The results are compared to check the accuracy of methods of estimating Weibull parameters. A new method of characterizing the site is proposed and tested. The method is based on Weibull distribution but the specific power density is the main variable of the distribution function. The results showed that this method is the most accurate method among all tested methods. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wind power, Weibull distribution, Irbid-Jordan
Analyzing Sustainable Development Impacts of Large-Scale Clean Development Mechanism Projects on Host Countries
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 153 - 161
Published: 10 Jan 2018
by Sultan Al Awadhi, Zeina Abbas, Toufic Mezher from Institute Center for Smart and Sustainable Systems (iSmart) Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abstract: The objective of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is to assist developed countries in achieving their emission reduction target levels and to contribute to the sustainable development of host countries. A Gold Standard (GS) rating system was developed to assess the value of emission certificates of existing CDM projects. In this paper, a framework was developed to analyze the true impact of CDM projects on host countries economically, socially, and environmentally. In addition, a comparative analysis is conducted between GS certified and non-certified projects to see which projects can be categorized as GS through Applied Statistical Inference techniques. Results show that the major impact of CDM projects was mainly related to job creation and reducing CO¬¬¬2 emissions. In addition, statistical analyses show that the sustainability filter in GS has many flaws and should be re-evaluated in order to be used as a rating system for CDM projects. read more... read less...
Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Gold Standard, sustainability, sustainable development.
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 143 - 151
Published: 08 Jan 2018
by M. A. Hamdan, K. K. Kardasi from The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: The performance of PV (photovoltaic) module is strongly dependent on its operating temperature. Most of the energy absorbed by the panel is converted to heat which is normally lost and provides no value. This work investigated experimentally the PV performance through using three separated PV panels. Three identical photovoltaic (PV) panels have been installed side by side to investigate the effect of cooling on the PV panels performance, one of them is used as a baseline ; the second is cooled using pure water; while the third is cooled using nanofluids. Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and Copper Oxide (CuO ) nanoparticles were added to the pure water to form the nanofluid, each one with different concentration in order to find the optimum concentration of Al2O3 and CuO. Meteorological data was measured using a weather station. Also, the temperature of the cooling fluids together with the backside temperature of the PV Panels was recorded. It was found that an increase in the efficiency of the panel of 2% was obtained when 0.4 % Al2O3 by weight was mixed with the pure water. This increase in efficiency was 2.34% when 0.6 % CuO. read more... read less...
Keywords: PV Cooling, Nanofluid, Solar Energy
A Comparative of Energy Efficiency of Luminaries for General Lighting for a Residential Building: CFL vs LED
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 125 - 129
Published: 08 Jan 2018
by Maysa Sarsour, Ahmed Al-Salaymeh from Electrical Engineer, Arabtech Jardaneh Group, Amman, Jordan Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Abstract: This paper presents comparison study between two types of lighting technologies; the compact fluorescent lighting (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED) luminaries for home general lighting usage. This study includes all parts of the luminaries that include the lamp itself and the housing. An experimental test was done to verify the luminance produced by the two technologies. The generated energy of the two technologies was compared by using DIALUX software under the same lumen flux. Furthermore, the associated cost is also evaluated over the stipulated operational period which shows the most advantages of the LED technology over CFL although the initial capital cost for LED is 22% higher than CFL. However, this increment can be equalized by a short payback period of nearly 18 months for the case. This comparison shows that the LED luminaries have the advantages of a significant reduction in the environmental impact, i.e. reduction of 41-50% of greenhouse gas emission and energy demand, mainly due to lower energy utilization and substantial reduction of 60-78% in electrical consumption. read more... read less...
Keywords: LED; CFL; DIALUX; Energy Efficiency
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 119 - 124
Published: 07 Jan 2018
by Mohammad Alsmadi, Yousef Dababneh, Ahmed Al-Salaymeh from Performance and Efficiency Department, KEPCO KPS Plant Services and engineering Co. Ltd, Amman, Jordan Renewable Energy Department, Wathba Investment Co., Amman, Jordan Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the utilization of PV feeding system for auxiliary energy demand in the conventional power plants. A 573 MW tri-fuel power plant in Jordan IPP3 the largest internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant in the world is the case study to evaluate the energy economy aspects of PV feeding system and its effects on the monthly payments for this energy. All relevant computations will be performed in order to end up with reasonable, feasible and applicable results. The auxiliary energy demand of this power plant while no operation is covered from the national transmission grid which results in around 48 MWh imported energy on daily basis taking in mind no operation case. Therefore, such PV system will have a noticeable impact over the productivity of the whole plant as well as raising the money spent for fuel upon the reduction of the heat rate. The PV system is sized to have a capacity of 2 MWp planned to be utilized during the day time. Considering the imported energy benefit, the corresponding pay-back period will through the 5th year where is expected to be accomplished during the 7th year when it comes to the heat rate improvement. The prominent fact to be mentioned here that the pay-back period upon either imported energy benefit of heat rate improvement is calculated separately. read more... read less...
Keywords: Energy, Auxiliary, Imported.
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 109 - 118
Published: 07 Jan 2018
by B.R. Qawasmeh, A. Al-Salaymeh, Ma’en S. Sari, Nadeen Elian, Nadeen Zahran from Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan Mechanical and Maintenance Engineering Department, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan
Abstract: The energy rating for residential buildings in Amman is studied and a rating scale is suggested. The annual cooling and heating energy requirement has been calculated according to Jordanian codes, using Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) and degree-days method (DD). The energy rating which provides the necessary information about the energy performance of the residential buildings has been assessed. The assessment is based on the thermal envelope. The annual energy loads are calculated for different cases according to different parameters such as glass layers for windows, and direction of the apartment. Two main cases are considered in constructing the energy rating scale; the cases are two apartments (one directed to the right while the other is directed to the left) located in Marka, Amman, Jordan. The two apartments have the same area of 110 m2 and in the same building's floor. The different orientations have been considered for the apartments of 90, 180 and 270 degree clock wise rotations. Then, the heating and cooling loads are calculated for all orientations using single glass and double glass. The annual cooling and heating energy without rotation using degree-days method (DD): for case one are 123.8 kWh/m² (for single glass) and 112.8 kWh/m² (for double glass), and for case 2 are 125.9 kWh/m² (for single glass) and 114.6 kWh/m² (for double glass) at Tb=18.3 Ԩ for heating and Tb =24 Ԩ for cooling. These results are in good agreement with the HAP results. Finally, an energy rating scale was suggested for residential buildings in Amman. read more... read less...
Keywords: Energy Rating, Degree-Days Method, Simulation
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 103 - 108
Published: 07 Jan 2018
by M. A. Hamdan, E. Abdelhafez, and O. Ghnaimat from University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan The Royal Scientific Society, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: In this study, three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models (Feedforward network, Elman, and Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX)) were used to predict hourly solar radiation in Amman, Jordan. The three models were constructed and tested by using MATLAB software. Meteorological data for the years from 2000 to 2010 were used to train the ANN while the yearly data of 2011 was used to test it. It was found that ANN technique may be used to estimate the hourly solar radiation with an excellent accuracy, and the coefficient of determination of Elman, feedforward and NARX models were found to be 0.97353, 0.97376, and 0.99017, respectively. The obtained results showed that NARX model has the best ability to predict the required solar data, while Elman and feedforward models have the lowest ability to predict it. read more... read less...
Keywords: Solar Radiation, Artificial Neural Networks, Prediction
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 95 - 101
Published: 07 Jan 2018
by Essam E. Khalil and Sherif M. Gomaa from Mechanical Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo11321, Egypt
Abstract: Fire propagation and control in underground car parks are of an important safety issue. This paper investigates the effect of the jet fan system on the smoke clearance in an underground car park using CFD simulations. Two fire locations were considered under a steady state fire source of 4 MW. The consideration of the fire zone was also studied. The underground car park used in this study is 5,290 m2 in area with a height of 3.7 m. A comparison between CFD results and analytical correlations for the fire modeling was made. The ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 software was used for all simulations. The results showed that the temperature is limited to the zone, where the fire is detected, and it is within an accepted range. The CO2 mass fraction was presented and showed how the jet fans contribute in reducing the smoke density and hence improve the visibility. It was found that dividing the car park into zones is highly recommended and should be taken in the design of the jet fan system. read more... read less...
Keywords: CFD, Fire Simulation, Dynamic Simulation, Car Parks
IJTEE, volume-14, Issue 2 (2018) , PP 89 - 93
Published: 07 Jan 2018
by S.M. Henkanatte-Gedera, T. Selvaratnam, N. Nirmalakhandan from Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Abstract: Meeting the demand for food, energy, and water to sustain the worldwide growth of urban population is a major challenge. Several recent reports have concluded that one approach to overcome this challenge is to recover and recycle resources within the food-energywater (FEW) nexus in urban settings. Urban wastewaters (UWW) are now being recognized as a resource, rich in nutrients and energy, rather than a waste stream that has to be treated and disposed of at the expense of significant energy input and associated environmental emissions. Reclaiming reusable water, nutrients, and energy from UWWs can contribute to autarky of FEW nexus and render the wastewater management process sustainable and potentially profitable. This paper presents a novel approach to treat UWW with the potential for high recovery of energy, nutrients, and water from UWW for use in food crop production. This approach entails cultivation of energy-rich algal biomass in primary-settled UWW followed by extraction of biocrude and nutrients from the algal biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction. A fraction of the recovered nutrients is recycled to boost biomass production while the rest can be stockpiled for use as fertilizer. Results from a pilot scale field study conducted at a local wastewater treatment plant confirmed that the algal system can achieve >80% removal of organic carbon, ammoniacal-nitrogen, and phosphates in UWW, meeting the respective discharge standards in a single step, with a batch process time of three days. read more... read less...
Keywords: Wastewater, energy recovery, nutrient recovery, algal cultivation